Location

Astronomically, the Zone extends between 7013’17’’N – 8o53’16’’ North latitudes and 35051’07’’E -37036’16’’ East longitudes. Relatively, it is located in the south western part of Oromiya National Regional State. It is bordered with East Wollega zone in the North, with East shawa zone and Southwest Shawa zone in North East, with SNNP administration in the South East and South part, and with   Illubabor zone in the West.

Because of geographical locations i.e. [near to the largest market centers like Finfinne and Welliso), the zone has a great advantage for accessing the local products to the market and creates favorable condition for the provision of the demanded commodities to the communities.

  • Area:- On the basis of the recent form of the border, Jimma zone has a total surface area of 18,696.7 km2 at which all area were under land body. The zone constitutes nearly 5.4% of the regional total surface area. Out of the total area of the Zone, about 1,801 km2 is under Tropical weather condition, about 16,134 km2 is under Sub-tropical weather condition and the remaining 761 km2 is under temperate weather condition.  Limmu Seka ,Sigmo  and Gera become to the widest districts of the zone while Botor Toley, Secka Chekorsa and  Mana   districts share the smallest areas of the zone. Limmu seka is the widest district of the zone that does have more than three- times folder than those small districts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table; 1:- Summery on comparative size of Jimma zone districts with their respective numbers of PAS, areas and capital towns (1998-2000)

S.N

Name of district

Capital town

No. Of

Area

PAS

@Urban centers

Km2

%

1

C/Botor

Bage

19

1

977

5.23

2

B/Xoollayi

Waayyuu

16

2

501.2

2.68

3

Dedo

Sheeki

34

2

797.8

4.27

4

Mancho

Gariru Kedida

20

1

703.67

3.76

5

Gera

Chira

29

3

1388

7.42

6

Goma

Agaro

36

5

767

4.10

7

Gumay

Toba

14

1

544.4

2.91

8

Kersa

Serbo

30

2

1006

5.38

9

L/Kosa

Genet

40

3

1353.9

7.24

10

L/Seka

Atinago

38

3

1776.8

9.50

11

Mana

Yabu

24

2

516.9

2.76

12

Agaro Town

Agaro

0

1

8

0.04

13

Jimma Town

Jimma

0

1

51

0.27

14

Omo Nada

Nada

24

2

803.184

4.30

15

O/Beeyyam

Dalota

15

1

813.816

4.35

16

Setema

Gatira

20

3

1176

6.29

17

Seka Chokorsa

Seka

36

3

516

2.76

18

Sh/Sombo

Shabe

20

2

1191

6.37

19

Sokoru

Sekoru

38

3

876.1

4.69

20

Sigmo

Sigmo

19

2

1585.51

8.48

21

Tiro Afeta

Dimtu

25

3

979

5.24

22

Nono Benja

Alga

19

2

783.7

4.19

 

Jimma Zone

Jimma

516

48

18,696.7

100

Source:-Adopted from Statistical Abstract Data of the Zone in the year 2014EC.

 

The above table shows the total area of Jimma Zone according to the data we have. According to the above table, Limu Seka is of the largest area in size out of the total number of Districts in our Zone which covers an area of about 1776.8 square kilometers. The second largest District is Sigmo which covers an area of about 1585.51 square kilometers. Within the last four consecutive years., three new districts were separated from the existing districts the first of which is Mencho which was separated from Dedo. The second district was Botor Toley which was basically separated from Chora Botor and took around four administrative Rural Villages from Tiro Afeta District. The third one was Omo Beyam which was separated from Omo Nada District in the above specified years of our study. The separation of new districts from the existing one made impossible to know the exact surface area of the new Districts as well as the Original districts from which the new one were separated. This was the big challenge we have encountered.

2.3.            Geology: –

Geological surveys indicated that the present land form of Jimma zone created as a result of different geological processes. The vast areas of the zone land formation had taken place during the Cenozoic era. The Central and Southern part of the zone (districts of Kersa , Nonno, Tirro Afata, Sokorru, Gomma part of Seka Chekorsa, Limmu Seka and Limmu Kossa fall to Maqdala group of tertiary volcanic. While, the Northern  and Western part of the zone that share with trap series of tertiary volcanic geological formation which includes the districts of Sigmo, Setema, Gera, part of Gomma, Omo Nada, Limmu Kossa and Limmu Seka.

The thick basaltic lava rocks of the trap series were the results of tertiary volcanic erruption of the Cenozoic era that covered the largest area of the district. It is conducive for farming activities, extraction of construction and industrial materials.

The geological formation of the zone had depicted that Jimma zone has a good potential for the development of a wide range of mineral resources. However, so far the zone mineral deposits exploitation did not deeply investigated except those in Dedo areas, but currently very essential mineral extraction is being conducted in Kersa and Gomma districts on the lignite mineral at Delbimoye that can be cited as an indicator for the availability of essential minerals. There is also information that indicates the availability of Steel mineral in Tiro Afeta District in Rural village which is around five kilometers away from the center of Ako Town. According to the information obtained from elders, the author of this profile has gathered that, steel mineral was being extracted from this village through cultural methods and brought to Omo Nada for making Niles and other materials by black smiths there during Aba Jifar First. Even though there is such information on the availability of this mineral, no one conducted further study. In different districts of the Zone including Dedo, there is also coal deposit. In some districts including Dedo, Coal is being extracted.

    2.4 Relief, Drainage and Climate :

2.4.1.  RELIEF The present land configuration of Jimma zone is the result of past tectonic and denudation activities. The relief feature of the zone is dominated by undulating to mountainous. The zone does generally bordered by largest rivers namely Didesa, Gibe, and Gojeb.

2.4.2         ALTITUDE/ELEVATION:  The land form of the district relief elevation ranges between 1000-3500m. Jimma zone generally lies with the altitude ranges between 1000 and 3500 meters above sea level. But the widest areas of the zone (which accounts 52%) lies between 1500 and 2000 meters above sea level. Areas lying between 1500 and 2000 meters above see level are  found    on the all area of Limmu Seka, Manna, East Kersa, Northern area of Dedo, Omo Nada, Eastern and Southern Gera, Seka Chekorsa , Sokoru & Eastern Gomma.     

All area of Sigmo, Vast area of Setema, Gera, central Seka Chekorsa, Dedo, Omo Nada, Tiro Afeta, Northern part  of Kersa, and Eastern part of Limmu Kossa districts have undulating  and intermediate plateau topography that highly ideal for  the farming which lies within altitude 2000-2500m. It accounts 34% of the zone total surface area. This high land also has bounded the mountain ranges that have 2500 and 3000 m. Other topography of the zone consists of areas that have elevation between 1000 and 1500m which includes   also the major rivers of      Dedesa, Gojeb and Gibe districts of Limmu Seka, Gomma, Seka Chekorsa, Dedo, Omonada,   Limmu Kosa and Sokoru. Only the small amounts (0.4%) of areas do have elevation that ranges between 500 and 1000m as indicated.

Table. 2:- Altitudinal Elevation of Jimma zone:

 

No

 

 Altitudinal ranges (Elevation)

Area in

Km2

%

1

3000-3500

37

0.2

2

2500-3000

616

3.3

3

2000-2500

6356

34

4

1500-2000

9722

52.0

5

1000-1500

1888

10.1

6

500-1000

74

0.4

 

Total

18,696.7

100

Source: Adopted from Oromiya Atlas (1997) and woody Biomass Project Atlas (2007)

The highest elevation of the zone is found in the central part of Omo Nada district with the most remarkable mountain peak called Gudo mount with elevation 3344m. The lowest elevation of the zone is also found in the district mentioned above with 880m along Gibe river valley.

2.4.3   DRAINAGE BASINS

A drainage  basin is one area of land drained by a river and its tributaries. Its boundary is shown by a ridge of high land beyond which any precipitation drain in to adjacent basins. This boundary refers to all water shed or water parting. Jimma zone constitutes three major water sheds that separate the rivers that flow to the Omo, Gibe and Baro rivers. It has three drainage basins namely Omo-Gibe, Abay and Baro Rivers that characterized by the type of dendrite drainage pattern. Gibe river basin occupies the largest (16,559 Km2) surface area of the zonal drainage basin. River Gojeb, Gilgel Gibe, Kersa, Kelecha, Unta, Kewa, Anderacha, Dembi, Nada, Abbonno, Doma, Busa and Nedi are remarkable perennial rivers flowing from the Eastern and Southern part and dendrite on the lower part.

Abay river basin occupies 1846 km2 surface area of the zonal drainage basin Didesa,  Dugaji, Wama, Wabe, Bokoka, Boror, Yebu and Anisu Are perennial) rivers in the western part of the zone. Didesa River constitutes the longest volume of the river basin. Baro river basin occupies the area 1101.24 km2 that found on the top of Gera mountain range. River Gebba, Onja, Sallako, Gidecha and Bodecha are the major perennial rivers in Baro river basin. Another water body is swampy locality that highly tress to the upper Gibe river catchments area, for instance, Cheleleka small lake in Limmu Kossa district does remarkable  in the zone.

Table; 3:- Summary of known streams, rivers (both Seasonal And perennial) in cluding length and depth of rivers in the zone..

No

River

Tributaries

Length

Seasonal

Perennial

1

Gibe

Gojeb

Gilgel Gibe

Kersa

Kelecha

Unta

Kewe

Anderacha

Dembi

Nada

Abbonno

Busa

Nedi

16559 km2

 

2

Abay

Didesa

Dugaji

Wama

Wabe

Bokoka

Boror

Yebu

Anisu

1846 km2

 

3

Baro

Gebba

Onja

Sallako

Gidacha

Bodacha

1101.24 km2

 

Source: – Adapted from Oromia regional statistics and information center (BOFED)

  • The above table indicates that the largest area of the zone is covered by Gibe River and that the rivers occurring in the zone is perennial and this makes the zone suitable for building irrigation
  • Gibe River creates favorable condition for getting electric power supply for the zone. It is also being used as the main source of fishes for the communities in the Zone.

                      2.4.4. CLIMATE :-

One of the basic important features for human beings to live on the earth is favorable environment, which in a sense is said to be favorable if and only if the climate is favorable. Most part of  Jimma administrative zone comprises 2 of three major agro-climates. I.e. Bada dare (subtropical), bada (cool) and Gamooji (tropical). The zone has characterized by three major climates.

  • ANNUAL TEMPRATURE The vast areas of Sigmo, Setema, Northern and Western Gera, Seka Chekorsa, Kersa, central Omo Nada ,Dedo,Eastern part of Limu Kossa and western Tiro Afeta districts have mean annual temperature between 15180

Central part of the zone along FinfinneJimma, Mettu road (large part of Tiro Afeta, Kersa Mana, Northen part of Omo Nada and Dedo) have mean annual temperature between 18200c. But area along major river valley, (Didessa, Gibe and Gojeb) which consists of Goma, Mana, Limu Kossa, Sokorru, Seka Chekorsa and Limu Seka have mean annual temperature between 20230c. Only small portion of the zone area (Gibe Valley of Sokoru district has mean annual temperature between 20230c)

The zone is weakly bimodal rainfall with spring a small rainy season during the months of April and may while summer a long rainy season during the months of July, August and September.

The zone has four rainfall classes. The first class covers the Vast area of the zone and abundantly found in the southern and central part that is common to districts of Mana, Kersa, Seka Chekorsa, Dedo, Tiro Afeta, Omo Nada, Limmu Seka and Limmu Kossa. The annual rainfall of this class lies between 1300mm1700mm. The second class of the rainfall lies between 1700 and 2100mm which is common to the western and northern part of the zone including Setema, Gera, Gomma, Limmu Seka and Limmu Kossa. All parts of Sigimo, part of Limmu Seka, Limmu Kossa and western part of Setema districts experience annual rainfall between 900 and 1300 mm which is restricted to Gibe river valley of Sokorru and OmoNada districts. These are the information obtained before two years, when it is compared to the current situation of the zone, some part of the districts rain fall is changed with the temperature of the area.

  • Agro Ecological climate: – is natural regions characterized by a fair, homogenous climate, physiographic, altitude (relief) and human activities. It is delineated in terms of major climatic variables and plant growing period, which is suitable for a certain ranges of crops and cultivators. It pulls together ecological parameters significant to agriculture (growing periods soils, physiographic (altitude and relief) and land degradation and environmental conservation.

Based on the general characteristics of traditional ecology, Jimma zone consists of three major climates: bada dare (subtropical), bada(temperate) and Gamoji(Tropical or Thermal Zones) which covers an area of about 78%, 12% & 10% respectively. Gamoji (tropical) agro-climate is found in Didessa, Gibe and Gojeb river valley of Limmu Seka, Gomma ,Sokorru, Dedo and Seka Chekorsa which accounts 10% of the district agro –climate having annual temperature of 20250c. Manna, Gumay, Aggaro, Tiro Afeta and Nono Benja have Badda daree (subtropical) agro climate that accounts 78% of the zonal total area. Sigmo, part of Setema, Gera, Omo Nada, Kersa and Limmu Seka high lands have bada (cool) agro climate that accounts 12% of the zone. The climate, to the current sense is changed, meaning the percentage of bada (cool) decreases, when that of tropical increases due to environmental degradation.   

2.5   Soils

The major soil categories of Jimma Zone are chromic and pelvic verti soils, 2925.9Km2 (15 %), OrthicAcrisols, 9553 Km 2 (50%) and Dystric Nitosols 6827 Km2 (35%). OrthicAcrisols cover the part of the Zone’s total area (50%) Which covers the vast area of Omo Nada, Dedo, Limmu Kosa, Kersa, and Sokoru. It constitutes the larger part of the zone soils. Chromic and pellic verity soils cover the smallest area of the zone’s total area (15%). The vast area of the Limmu Seka, Kersa, Yabu, Northern Omo Nada and Dedo. It constitutes the smallest part of zone soils. Dystric Nito soils have found in Setema, Sigimo, Northern and southern, western Gomma and Limmu Kossa inpart have good agricultural potentialities but land preparations do have a difficult task. It cracks during dry season and has in fact water logged character during wet season. Those extreme cases contributed for limiting agricultural potentialities of the soil. But it is very fertile soils for crop production, from the soils encountered in Jimma Zone, Dystric Nitosols have great potential for crop production, which is found in the districts mentioned above.

2.6.  VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE

                      2.6.1.  VEGETATION

For sustainable development of the country, vegetation has great (positive impact) on the development, because, if there are vegetation coverage, there can also be wild lives for the attraction of tourists. When we come to Jimma zone, almost 49.6% of the zone total area is devoted to cultivation. The remaining 50.4% of the total area of land were under vegetation coverage (22.8% under forest, 18% under wood land(bush and shrub land ), and 9.6% under grass land. The Natural vegetation is highly endangered through human intervention for different purposes. Jimma Zone is one of the zones of Oromia Regional state which have large regional Forest priority areas. There are broad leaved forests that abundantly found in Jimma Zone which includes Abelti- Gibe (Sokorru), Belete (Shabe Sombo), Gera (Gera), Tiro-Boter- Becho (Tiro Afeta and Limmu Kossa), Sigimo – Geba (Sigimo & Setema districts) and Bebiya –Folla (Kersa & Tiro Afeta) forests. The widest Regional Forest in Jimma Zone is Sigimo Geba Forest which covers (1168Km2). But the AbbeltiGibe forest covers the smallest area (146Km2) of the zone land.

Table; 4:- Distribution of Regional state forests in Jimma Zone by their areal coverage (Km2) and Location.

S.N

Name of Regional Forest

Location of the forest

Areal coverage in Km2

1

Abelti- Gibe

Sokorru

146.7

2

Belete

Seka chekorsa

346.4

3

Gera

Gera

1133.6

4

Tiro-Botor- Becho

Limmu Kossa & Tiro Afeta

950.9

5

Sigimo- Geba

Sigmo & Setema

1168.8

6

Babiya Folla

Kersa

705.5

 

Total

 

4,451.9

Source: Oromiya, BOFED, Regional statistics, Jan 1997 EC

  • The above table indicates that the largest area of Jimma zone is covered by the SigimoGeba forest which is found in Sigmo & Setema.
  • The data indicates that there are no bush-
  • It is not only customary to list the name of high forest in the zone, but it is better to identify which trees are the most economical and which ones are the most environmental protection trees.

Table; 5:- The most common tree species, the most economical and the most environmental protection trees in Jimma Zone.

S.N

Common tree species

Economical trees

Environmental protection trees

1

Acacia Abyssinica

Cathay Edulis

1. Acacia Abyssinica

2

Acacia Albia

2. Citrus Sinensis

2. Acacia Albia

3

Albia Gumiferia

3. Eucalyptus camel dutersis

3. Cordia Africana

4

Aningeria Adelphi

4. Inset Ventricosum

4. Croton macro Stacie

5

Cordia Africana

5. Ficussur

5. Pelonic xenia

6

Croton macro Stacie

6. Mongifera indicia

6.Duodena Eugustolia

7

Deloris Regna

7. Persia Americana

7. Ekberg capiases

8

Dedonia angustifolia

8. Ramona peo Nies

8. Maginia Abysinica

9

Ekberg Capiases

 

10

Eucalyptus globules

 

11

Inset Ventricosum

12

Podocarpus falcate

13

Pigeum Africana

14

Vernon Angelina

        Source: Oromia Forest Enterprise, Jimma Forest Agency 1999 & 2000

 

2.6.2. Wild Life:

One of the basic criteria to be satisfied for wild animal is to prepare the place for their conservation. Because, in developed countries also, tourist attraction and the revenue collected from the tourists have accelerated the development of the country. When we come to Jimma’s case, there are no protected areas i.e. (National Parks, Sanctuaries and Game reserves) for wild animal conservation.

  • This case resulted in the presence of small number of wild animals in the zone. Wild animals those found in Jimma zone are, Leopard, Lion, Greater kudu, Civet, Pig, Buffalo, Monkey, Warthog, Spotted hyena, Bush back, Bush duiker, fox, and Rabbit. There are also small number of wild animals and birds with no special features in the zone. To the modern sense, human interference increased on forest and wild life species decreased.
  • This is due to immigration of people from their original place to another and hence deforestation occurred which in a sense results in absence of tourist attraction and load (burden) to the society. In place of the reserved area for wild life conservation, Regional state forests are used as the home of those wild

 

POPULATION

 

Population of Jimma Zone for the year 2013EC & 2014EC consecutively by the main age groups. According to the table, in the year 2013EC, there were about 812,349 male and 781,068 female those who are under the age of 15 & economically not active in the rural areas of the Zone. In this year, about 846,918 male and 814,305 female were those who are found in the age group 15-64 & expected to be economically active on whom those who are economically inactive population depend for a living. In the year specified above, about 69,136 male & 66,474 female were those who are found in an old-age group which is above the age of 64 in rural areas of the Zone. According to the table, in urban areas of the zone, there were about 95,812 male & 94,412 female who are under the age of 15 in the year 2013EC. There were also about 99,890 male & 98,429 female those who are in economically active age group and the remaining 8,154 male & 8,036 female were those who are in an old-age group depending upon the data we have. In this year, the total population of the Zone is estimated to be 3,794,982 out of which 3,390,249 were rural dwellers and the remaining 404,733 were urban dwellers.

In the year 2014EC, in rural areas of the Zone, there were about 835,095 male & 802,938 female those who are economically not active and expected to depend up on about 870,631 male & 837,105 female those found in the age group of 15-64 for a living. In this year in the above specified areas of the Zone, about 71,072 male & 68,335 female were those who are under the age group of above 64 and expected to be dependent up on those who are economically active. In this year, in the urban areas of the Zone, there were about 98,591 male & 97,150 female those who are in the age group of 0-14 and economically inactive, 102,787 male & 101,283 female those who are in the age group of 15-64 and 8,390 male & 8,270 female were those who are in the age group of above 64. In the year mentioned above, the total population of the Zone is estimated to be about 3,901,647 from which 3,485,176 were rural & the remaining 416,471 were urban dwellers respectively in the Zone.

                     Dependency Ratio

We remember that, the total population of a given country is sub-divided into three main age groups out of which one age group is economically active and independent. The remaining two age groups are economically not active and depend on the active age group to sustain their lives. Population those found in the age group of 15-64 are economically active while those found in the age groups of 0-14 and above 64 are economically inactive. Therefore, it is very important to calculate dependency ratio based on the population data we have on our hand in the following manner. Even though there is no pure population data directly obtained from census in the required manner, dependency ratio of the Zone looks like the following;

Dependency Ratio of 2013EC. =Popn. 0-14 (Ur+Ru) + popn. >64(Ur+Ru)  x100

                                                                  Popn. 15-64 (Ur+Rur)

                                                           =1,783,641+151,800  x100

                                                                     1,859,542

                                                                =104.0816≈104

The above figure shows the dependency ratio of the Zone in the year 2013EC. The figure indicates that dependency ratio in the Zone was 104 which shows that for every 100 economically independent people in the Zone there were 104 economically dependent people for a living.

 

 

Dependency Ratio of 2014EC. =Popn. 0-14 (Ur+Ru) + popn. >64(Ur+Ru)  x100

                                                                  Popn. 15-64 (Ur+Rur)

                                                   =1,833,774+156,067 x100

                                                           1,911,806

                                                    =1.040817426×100

                                                    =104.08174≈104

The above figure shows dependency ratio of the Zone in the year 2014EC. Hence, dependency ratio of the Zone was estimated to be 104 which show for every 100 economically independent people, there were 104 economically dependent people in the Zone in the year specified above. In the two consecutive years of the study, dependency ratio was almost one to one which means for every one economically independent person in the Zone there was one economically dependent person depending up on the data we have.

As we know, Dependency ratio has directly correlation with economically active and in-active Population. According to the Analytical Report on the 2013 National Labor Force  Survey, the data on economically active population relates to that of the size and distribution of the work force engaged or available to be engaged in the production of economic goods and services during a given reference period.

In this survey, information was collected on economic participation of all persons aged ten years and above. Thus in terms of activity status, the survey divided the population into economically active and not active categories. The lower age limit was fixed at ten years to allow comparisons with other countries and to incorporate information about those children, who start taking part in many types of economic activities at young ages.

Economic activity in the survey was defined in terms of production of goods and services that fall within the United Nations System of National Accounts (SNA) Production Boundary (ILO, 1990). Hence, in the 2013 National Labor Force Survey, economic activity is defined as work, which involves the production of goods and/or services for sale or exchange and production of certain products for own consumption. But the above dependency ratio was estimated using the population aged 14 and below as economically in-active. For our sake, the above estimated dependency ratio is enough that is why we reject to estimate dependency ratio depending upon the United Nations System of National Accounts (SNA) production boundary (ILO,1990). Because in Ethiopia, children those aged 0-14 are dependents upon those who are economically active.